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Allen, Robert C., Farm to Factory: a Reinterpretation of the Soviet Industrial Revolution, Princeton University Press, Princeton 2003.

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This volume argues that the USSR was one of the most successful developing economies of the twentieth century. He reaches this provocative conclusion by recalculating national consumption and using economic, demographic, and computer simulation models to address the "what if" questions central to Soviet history. Moreover, by comparing Soviet performance not only with advanced but with less developed countries, he provides a meaningful context for its evaluation. Although the Russian economy began to develop in the late nineteenth century based on wheat exports, modern economic growth proved elusive. But growth was rapid from 1928 to the 1970s--due to successful Five Year Plans. The building of heavy industry accelerated growth during the 1930s and raised living standards, especially for the many peasants who moved to cities. A sudden drop in fertility due to the education of women and their employment outside the home also facilitated growth.

 

While highlighting the previously underemphasized achievements of Soviet planning, Farm to Factory also shows, through methodical analysis set in fluid prose, that Stalin's worst excesses--such as the bloody collectivization of agriculture--did little to spur growth. Economic development stagnated after 1970, as vital resources were diverted to the military and as a Soviet leadership lacking in original thought pursued wasteful investments.

Bayley, Richard B., Freedom and regulation of the Russian periodical press, 1905-1914, Thesis--University of Illinois, 1968

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This paper discusses how operating regulations and the freedom of press in Russia in the early 20th century/ Η εργασία αναφέρεται στον τρόπο λειτουργίας, τους κανονισμούς και την ελευθερία του περιοδικού Τύπου στη Ρωσία των αρχών του 20ου αιώνα. 

Becker, Seymour, Nobility and Privilege in Late Imperial Russia, N. Illinois University Press, Dekalb 1985 

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Αυτό το βιβλίο εξετάζει το ρόλο των Ρώσων ευγενών την περίοδο 1861-1914. Σε αντιπαράθεση με την οπτική που αποδίδει την αναδιαμόρφωση των ευγενών στις αναχρονιστικές τους αντιλήψεις και την αποτυχία να ανταποκριθούν τις κοινωνικές αλλαγές, ο παρόν τόμος απορρίπτει την ιδέα της πτώσης της τάξης και υποστηρίζει ότι οι γαιοκτήμονες ανταποκρίθηκαν θετικά στις νέες συνθήκες και συνέβαλαν αποφασιστικά στην οικονομική και πολιτική εξέλιξη της Ρωσίας./Τhis book examines the transformation of the Russian nobility between 1861 and 1914. Contrary to the view that attirbutes the transformation to the anachronistic attitudes of its members and their failure to adapt to social change, this volume challenges this idea of "the decline of the nobility." and argues that the privileged estate responded positively to change and greatly influenced their nation's political and economic destiny.

Beckert, Sven, The Monied Metropolis: New York City and the Consolidation of the American Bourgeoisie, 1850–1896, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 2001

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This volume is a comprehensive history of New York's economic elite, the most powerful group in nineteenth-century America. It explains how a small and diverse group of New Yorkers came to wield unprecedented economic, social, and political power from 1850 to the turn of the twentieth century and reveals the central role of the Civil War in realigning New York's economic elite, abandoning the free labor views of the antebellum years for laissez-faire liberalism.

Broomhall, G. J. S. - Hubback, John H., Corn trade memories, recent and remote, Northern Publishing Co. Ltd, Liverpool 1930

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Shipping  Economy and Infrastructure  Administration  

Brower Daniel, The Russian City between Tradition and Modernity, 1850-1900, University of California Press, Berckley, Los Angeles and California 1990 

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Αυτό το βιβλίο εξετάζει την ιστορία των ρωσικών πόλεων μέσω της αναδιάρθρωση της αστικής ζωής στην ύστερη τσαρική περίοδο. Ειδικότερα, εξετάζει τις αλλαγές που συμβαίνουν στην Ευρωπαϊκή Ρωσία στα χρόνια μεταξύ των μεταρρυθμίσεων του Αλεξάνδρου ΙΙ και της Επανάστασης του 1905./This book examines the history of Russian cities through the transformation of urban life in the late tsarist period. Specifically, it looks at the changes under way in European Russia in the decades between the reforms of Alexander II and the Revolution of 1905.

Burbank, Jane et al., Russian Empire: Space, People, Power 1700-1930, Indiana University Press, Bloomington 2007

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Russian Empire offers new perspectives on the strategies of imperial rule pursued by rulers, officials, scholars, and subjects of the Russian empire. An international team of scholars explores the connections between Russia’s expansion over vast territories occupied by people of many ethnicities, religions, and political experiences and the evolution of imperial administration and vision. The fresh research reflected in this innovative volume reveals the ways in which the realities of sustaining imperial power in a multiethnic, multiconfessional, scattered, and diffuse environment inspired political imaginaries and set limits on what the state could accomplish. Taken together, these rich essays provide important new frameworks for understanding Russia’s imperial geography of power.

Clowes, W. - Kassow, Samuel D., - West, James L. (eds), Between Tsar and People. Educated Society and the Quest for Public Identity in Late Imprial Russia, Princeton University Press, Princeton 1991

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Urban Landscape - Geography  Culture and Communities  Administration  
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This interdisciplinary collection of essays on the social and cultural life of late imperial Russia describes the struggle of new elites to take up a "middle position" in society--between tsar and people. During this period autonomous social and cultural institutions, pluralistic political life, and a dynamic economy all seemed to be emerging. But then diversity had as its price the potential for political disorder and social dissolution. Analyzing the attempt of educated Russians to forge new identities, this book reveals the social, cultural, and regional fragmentation of the times.

Daly, John Charles, The Russian Black Sea Fleet and the 'Eastern Question', 1827-1841, University of London, School of Slavonic and East European Studies, London 1896

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This work utilizes many primary and secondary sources to examine the Russian use of the Black Sea fleet during 1827-1841. Topics covered include Navarino, the subsequent Russo-Turkish war, the Hunkar-Iskelessi treaty and Russia's growing regional commitment. The book concludes with the second Turko-Egyptian crisis and the 1841 straits convention. 

Freeze, Gregory L.  (ed), Russia. A History, Oxford University Press, Oxford, New York 2002

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Από τη δημιουργία του ρωσικού κράτους από το 14ο αιώνα έως τις πολιτικές μάχες της δεκαετίας του 1990 και την αβεβαιότητα της νέας χιλιετίας, αυτός ο τόμος αποτελεί μια συμβολή στην γενική ρώσικη ιστορία διαμέσου έξι αιώνων/From the formation of the Russian state in the 14th century to the political power struggles of the 1990s and the uncertainties of the new millennium, this volume offers an account of Russian history across six tumultuous centuries. 

Freeze, Gregory L., "The Soslovie (Estate) Paradigm and Russian Social History", in American Historical Review, vol. 91, no. 1, Feb. 1986, pp. 11 - 36

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The article makes a brief record of the social history of Russia in the 19th century/ Το άρθρο πραγματοποιεί μία σύντομη καταγραφή της κοινωνικής ιστορίας της Ρωσίας το 19ο αιώνα. 

Guroff, Gregory and Carstensen, Fred (eds), Entrepreneurship in Imperial Russia and the Soviet Union, Princeton University Press, Princeton 1983 

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Ο παρών τόμος αποτελεί μια διεπιστημονική μελέτη για την επιχειρηματικότητα στην ρωσική κοινωνία από το 16ο έως τον εικοστό αιώνα και αναδεικνύει τον ιδιαίτερο ρόλο της κεντρικής διοίκησης στην οικονομική πρωτοβουλία./This multidisciplinary study of entrepreneurship in Russian society from the sixteenth to the twentieth century demonstrates the crucial influence of central government on economic initiative.

Hajnal, Henry, The Danube: Its historical, political and economic importance, The Hague: M. Nijhoff, 1920

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Nezhin  Galatz  Braila  
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This article mentions the role of the Danube as an economic, political and social factor of Europe in the 19th century/ Το άρθρο αναφέρεται στο ρόλο του Δούναβη ως οικονομικός, πολιτικός και κοινωνικός παράγοντας της Ευρώπης το 19ο αιώνα. 

Hamm, Michael F., “The modern Russian city. A historiographical analysis”, Journal of urban history, Vol. 4, No. 1, (November 1977), pp. 39-75

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The article discusses the historiographical analysis of Russian cities on the verge of the 20th century/ Το άρθρο αναφέρεται στην ιστοριογραφική ανάλυση των ρωσικών πόλεων στο μεταίχμιο του 20ου αιώνα. 

Hamm, Michael, F. (ed.), The City in Late Imperial Russia, Indiana University Press, Bloomington 1986

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From the Great Reforms that began in the 1860s to the revolutions of 1917, the Russian Empire experienced a period of explosive urban growth. This volume examines the changes it brought in eight of the Empire’s largest cities.

Hammack, David C., Power and society: Greater New York at the turn of the century, New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 1982

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Focusing on the period when New York City was transformed from a nineteenth-century mercantile center to a modern metropolis, this volume offers an entirely new view of the history of power and public policy in the nation's largest urban community.

Opening with a fresh and original interpretation of the metropolitan region's economic and social history between 1890 and 1910, it goes on to show how various population groups used their economic, social, cultural, and political resources to shape the decisions that created the modern city. As New York grew in size and complexity, its economic and social interests were forced to compete and form alliances. Building on this account of this interplay among numerous elites, it concludes with a new interpretation of the history of power in New York and other American cities between 1890 and 1950.

 

Harlaftis, Gelina, "Greek shipowners and State Intervention in the 1940s: A formal justification for the Resort to Flags-of-Convenience?", International Journal of Maritime History,vol. Ι, no. 2, December 1989, pp. 37-63

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Haxthausen, August, Freiherr von, The Russian Empire: its people, institutions, and resources, London: Chapman and Hall, 1856, vol. I-II

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The book attempts to analyze the social background and the institutions of the Russian Empire during its heyday/ Το βιβλίο επιχειρεί να αναλύσει το κοινωνικό υπόβαθρο και τους θεσμούς της Ρωσικής Αυτοκρτορίας κατά την περίοδο της ακμής της.

Hoffman, David L. - Kotsonis, Yanni, Russian Modernity: Politics, Knowledge, Practices, Palgrave Macmillan, London 2000

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The present volume places Imperial and Soviet Russia in a European context. Russia shared in a larger European modernity marked by increased overlap and sometimes merger of realms that had previously been treated as discrete entities: the social and the political, state and society, government and economy, and private and public. These were attributes of Soviet dictatorship, but their origins can be located in a larger European context and in the emergence of modern forms of government in Imperial Russia/ Το βιβλίο αναλύει όλους τους παράγοντες που οδήγησαν στον εκσυγχρονισμό της ρωσικής κοινωνίας κατά το 19ο αιώνα. 

Hosking, Geoffrey A., Russia: People and Empire, 1552-1917, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusets 1997

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Η Σοβιετική Ένωση καταρρέει και η Ρωσία αναδύεται ως ένα μεγάλο έθνος-ένα τέλειο σενάριο, αλλά από την  άλλη η Ρωσία δεν ήταν ποτέ ένα έθνος. Και αυτό βρίσκεται στην καρδιά του ρωσικού διλήμματος λέει o Geoffrey Hosking. Το παρόν βιβλίο αφορά στα 300 χρόνια ιστορίας του χτισίματος μιας αυτοκρατορίας εις βάρος της εθνικής ταυτότητας. Η Ρωσία ξεκινά τον 16ο αιώνα, με τη σύλληψη μιας από τις πιο εκτενής αυτοκρατορίες στην ιστορία. Ο Hoskins αποδεικνύει πως η προσπάθεια κατάκτησης, άμυνας και διοίκησης ενός μείγματος περιοχών και ανθρώπων κατέβαλλε τις παραγωγικές δυνάμεις των ανθρώπων και διέρρυξε τους κοινωνικούς τους θεσμούς.

Ούτε το κράτος, ούτε η εκκλησία μπόρεσε να δημιουργήσει ένα είδωλο ρωσισμού, που θα μπορούσε να ενοποιήσει την ελίτ με τις μάζες υπό την πεποίθηση ότι ανήκουν σε ένα έθνος. Ο Hoskins απεικονίζει δύο Ρωσίες, αυτή των ευγενών και εκείνη των χωρικών και αποκαλύπτει πως το κενό μεταξύ τους μεγάλωσε τον 18ο και 19ο αιώνα και πως επέστρεψε με τη μορφή του επαναστατικού κινήματος. Το βιβλίο κλείνει το 1917/   

The Soviet Union crumbles and Russia rises from the rubble, once again the great nation--a perfect scenario, but for one point: Russia was never a nation. And this, says the eminent historian Geoffrey Hosking, is at the heart of the Russians' dilemma today, as they grapple with the rudiments of nationhood. His book is about the Russia that never was, a three-hundred-year history of empire building at the expense of national identity.

 Russia begins in the sixteenth century, with the inception of one of the most extensive and diverse empires in history. Hosking shows how this undertaking, the effort of conquering, defending, and administering such a huge mixture of territories and peoples, exhausted the productive powers of the common people and enfeebled their civic institutions. Neither church nor state was able to project an image of "Russian-ness" that could unite elites and masses in a consciousness of belonging to the same nation. Hosking depicts two Russias, that of the gentry and of the peasantry, and reveals how the gap between them, widened by the Tsarist state's repudiation of the Orthodox messianic myth, continued to grow throughout the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Here we see how this myth, on which the empire was originally based, returned centuries later in the form of the revolutionary movement, which eventually swept away the Tsarist Empire but replaced it with an even more universalist one. Hosking concludes his story in 1917, but shows how the conflict he describes continues to affect Russia right up to the present day. 

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